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Cast of Augustus portrait from Museo Capitolino inventory 495 in the Ara Pacis Museum, found in 1889 on
Via Merulana in a medieval wall across from SS Marcellino e Pietro and the monastery of San Antonio.
Cast of Museo Capitolino inventory 495

Forbes Augustus, Boston MFA inv. 06.1873

Forbes Augustus, Boston MFA inv. 06.1873

Forbes Augustus, Boston MFA inv. 06.1873

Boston MFA Inv. 99.344

Laureate bust, Museo Capitolino inv. 495

Museo Capitolino inventory 495

Museo Capitolino, Stanza degli Imperatori Inv. 413

Augustus
Chiusi Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Inv. 3182




The Getty (Nilsson) Augustus, J. Paul Getty Museum inv. 78.AA.261



The Getty (Nilsson) Augustus, J. Paul Getty Museum inv. 78.AA.261
Portrait of Augustus
Museo Capitolino inv. 2394

Louvre inv. MA 2577

Musée du Louvre inv. Ma 1278

Musée du Louvre inv. Ma 1278

Musée du Louvre inv. Ma 1278

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1212

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1247

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1247

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1247

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1247

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1247

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1247

"Type IV" Augustus, Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1280

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1280

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1280

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1280

Musée du Louvre. Inv. no. MA 1280

Procession fragment from the Ara Pacis, Louvre inv. Ma 1088

Via Labicana Augustus (Augustus as Pontifex Maximus), Terme Inv. no. 56230

Via Labicana Augustus, Terme Inv. no. 56230

Via Labicana Augustus, Terme Inv. no. 56230

Via Labicana Augustus, Terme Inv. no. 56230

Via Labicana Augustus, Terme Inv. no. 56230

Via Labicana Augustus, Terme Inv. no. 56230

Via Labicana Augustus, Terme Inv. no. 56230

Louvre inv. MA 1212.

Louvre inv. MA 1212.

Bronze Augustus from Herculaneum, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli Inv. 5595

Bronze Augustus from Herculaneum

Bronze Augustus from Herculaneum

Marble Portrait of Augustus
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. 08.258.47

Marble Portrait of Augustus
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. 08.258.47

Augustus
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. 07.286.115

Augustus
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. 07.286.115

Miniature portrait of Augustus
NY Metropolitan Museum of Art inv. 09.221.7

Colossal head of Augustus
Metropolitan Museum of Art inv. 21.88.94

The Prima Porta Augustus
Vatican inv. 2290

The Prima Porta Augustus

The Prima Porta Augustus

The Prima Porta Augustus detail.
Recovery of the lost military standards.

The Prima Porta Augustus breastplate detail.

The Prima Porta Augustus breastplate detail.

Colossal head of Augustus from Veii. Vatican Inv. 1639

Colossal head of Augustus from Veii. Vatican Inv. 1639

Augustus
Cast of head of Augustus, found in Cerveteri in 1840. Original - Louvre MA 1245.

Augustus
Cast of head of Augustus, found in Cerveteri in 1840. Original - Louvre MA 1245.

Augustus
Augustus - Vatican Inv. 10222

Vatican Inv. 10222

Vatican Inv. 10222

Colossal head of Augustus from Cerveteri.
Vatican Inv. 9953

Colossal head of Augustus from Cerveteri.
Vatican Inv. 9953

 
Colossal portrait (~6 feet tall, hair modernized).
Vatican Cortile della Pigna, Inv. 5137

 




Augustus Timeline
23 September, 63 BC Born (as Gaius Octavius) to Gaius Octavius and Atia, niece of Julius Caesar.
45 BC Octavius accompanies Caesar to Spain for the Battle of Munda
44 BC Caesar is assassinated, his will stating that he has adopted Octavius.
43 BC Octavius takes the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
October, 43 BC Octavian, Antony and Lepidus form the second triumvirate. Proscriptions of at least 100 senators, including Cicero.
January 1, 42 BC Caesar is deified and Octavian becomes Divi Filiu, the son of a god.
October 23, 42 BC Battle of Philippi - Mark Antony and Octavian defeat the armies of Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins.
39 BC Octavian marries Scribonia, with whom he has a daughter, Julia.
38 BC Octavian divorces Scribonia and marries Livia.
37 BC Antony marries Cleopatra.
36 BC Octavian and Lepidus defeat Sextus Pompey at Naulochus. Lepidus is removed from the Triumvirate, leaving Rome in the hands of Antony and Octavian.
32 BC Rome declares war on Egypt and assigns Octavian control.
31 BC Octavian and Agrippa defeat Antony at the Battle of Actium.
January 16, 27 BC Octavian receives the title Augustus. Augustus receives proconsul power in Spain, Gaul, Syria and Egypt.
23 BC Augustus receives imperium maius and tribunicia potestas, giving him power over the magistrates and veto authority.
 22 BC Augustus travels to the east, is initiated into the Mysteries of Eleusis, and recovers the standards captured from Crassus by the Parthians.
 17 BC Augustus adopts Gaius and Lucius Caesar.
 March 6, 12 BC Augustus takes the role of Pontifex Maximus.
 January 1, 2 BC Augustus becomes pater patriae.
 4 AD Augustus adopts Tiberius and Tiberius adopts Germanicus.
9 AD  Battle of the Teutoburg Forest - Germans ambush and destroy Publius Quinctilius Varus and three legions.
14 AD  Augustus dies at Nola.


Suetonius on Augustus' lineage (Lives of the Twelve Caesars):

The great-grandfather of Augustus served as a military tribune in the second Punic war in Sicily, under the command of Aemilius Pappus. His grandfather contented himself with bearing the public offices of his own municipality, and grew old in the tranquil enjoyment of an ample patrimony. Such is the account given by different authors. Augustus himself, however, tells us nothing more than that he was descended of an equestrian family, both ancient and rich, of which his father was the first who obtained the rank of senator. Mark Antony upbraidingly tells him that his great-grandfather was a freedman of the territory of Thurium, and a rope-maker, and his grandfather a usurer. This is all the information I have any where met with, respecting the ancestors of Augustus by the fatherfs side.

III. His father Caius Octavius was, from his earliest years, a person both of opulence and distinction: for which reason I am surprised at those who say that he was a money-dealer, and was employed in scattering bribes, and canvassing for the candidates at elections, in the Campus Martius. For being bred up in all the affluence of a great estate, he attained with ease to honourable posts, and discharged the duties of them with much distinction. After his prætorship, he obtained by lot the province of Macedonia; in his way to which he cut off some banditti, the relics of the armies of Spartacus and Catiline, who had possessed themselves of the territory of Thurium; having received from the senate an extraordinary commission for that purpose. In his government of the province, he conducted himself with equal justice and resolution; for he defeated the Bessians and Thracians in a great battle, and treated the allies of the republic in such a manner, that there are extant letters from M. Tullius Cicero, in which he advises and exhorts his brother Quintus, who then held the proconsulship of Asia with no great reputation, to imitate the example of his neighbour Octavius, in gaining the affections of the allies of Rome.

IV. After quitting Macedonia, before he could declare himself a candidate for the consulship, he died suddenly, leaving behind him a daughter, the elder Octavia, by Ancharia; and another daughter, Octavia the younger, as well as Augustus, by Atia, who was the daughter of Marcus Atius Balbus, and Julia, sister to Caius Julius Cæsar. Balbus was, by the fatherfs side, of a family who were natives of Aricia, and many of whom had been in the senate. By the motherfs side he was nearly related to Pompey the Great; and after he had borne the office of prætor, was one of the twenty commissioners appointed by the Julian law to divide the land in Campania among the people. But Mark Antony, treating with contempt Augustusfs descent even by the motherfs side, says that his great grand-father was of African descent, and at one time kept a perfumerfs shop, and at another, a bake-house, in Aricia. And Cassius of Parma, in a letter, taxes Augustus with being the son not only of a baker, but a usurer. These are his words: gThou art a lump of thy motherfs meal, which a money-changer of Nerulum taking from the newest bake-house of Aricia, kneaded into some shape, with his hands all discoloured by the fingering of money.h

V. Augustus was born in the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Caius Antonius, upon the ninth of the calends of October [the 23rd September], a little before sunrise, in the quarter of the Palatine Hill...



Tacitus on Augustus' character:

Tacitus tells his readers that he holds no bitterness toward Augustus, but spins a diatribe against the Julio-Claudians' role in the the loss of the republic.

[Annals [1.2] When after the destruction of Brutus and Cassius there was no longer any army of the Commonwealth, when Pompeius was crushed in Sicily, and when, with Lepidus pushed aside and Antonius slain, even the Julian faction had only Caesar left to lead it, then, dropping the title of triumvir, and giving out that he was a Consul, and was satisfied with a tribune's authority for the protection of the people, Augustus won over the soldiers with gifts, the populace with cheap corn, and all men with the sweets of repose, and so grew greater by degrees, while he concentrated in himself the functions of the Senate, the magistrates, and the laws. He was wholly unopposed, for the boldest spirits had fallen in battle, or in the proscription, while the remaining nobles, the readier they were to be slaves, were raised the higher by wealth and promotion, so that, aggrandised by revolution, they preferred the safety of the present to the dangerous past. Nor did the provinces dislike that condition of affairs, for they distrusted the government of the Senate and the people, because of the rivalries between the leading men and the rapacity of the officials, while the protection of the laws was unavailing, as they were continually deranged by violence, intrigue, and finally by corruption.

[1.3] Augustus meanwhile, as supports to his despotism, raised to the pontificate and curule aedileship Claudius Marcellus, his sister's son, while a mere stripling, and Marcus Agrippa, of humble birth, a good soldier, and one who had shared his victory, to two consecutive consulships, and as Marcellus soon afterwards died, he also accepted him as his son-in-law. Tiberius Nero and Claudius Drusus, his stepsons, he honoured with imperial tides, although his own family was as yet undiminished. For he had admitted the children of Agrippa, Caius and Lucius, into the house of the Caesars; and before they had yet laid aside the dress of boyhood he had most fervently desired, with an outward show of reluctance, that they should be entitled "princes of the youth," and be consuls-elect. When Agrippa died, and Lucius Caesar as he was on his way to our armies in Spain, and Caius while returning from Armenia, still suffering from a wound, were prematurely cut off by destiny, or by their step-mother Livia's treachery, Drusus too having long been dead, Nero remained alone of the stepsons, and in him everything tended to centre. He was adopted as a son, as a colleague in empire and a partner in the tribunitian power, and paraded through all the armies, no longer through his mother's secret intrigues, but at her open suggestion. For she had gained such a hold on the aged Augustus that he drove out as an exile into the island of Planasia, his only grandson, Agrippa Postumus, who, though devoid of worthy qualities, and having only the brute courage of physical strength, had not been convicted of any gross offence. And yet Augustus had appointed Germanicus, Drusus's offspring, to the command of eight legions on the Rhine, and required Tiberius to adopt him, although Tiberius had a son, now a young man, in his house; but he did it that he might have several safeguards to rest on. He had no war at the time on his hands except against the Germans, which was rather to wipe out the disgrace of the loss of Quintilius Varus and his army than out of an ambition to extend the empire, or for any adequate recompense. At home all was tranquil, and there were magistrates with the same titles; there was a younger generation, sprung up since the victory of Actium, and even many of the older men had been born during the civil wars. How few were left who had seen the republic!

[1.4] Thus the State had been revolutionised, and there was not a vestige left of the old sound morality. Stript of equality, all looked up to the commands of a sovereign without the least apprehension for the present, while Augustus in the vigour of life, could maintain his own position, that of his house, and the general tranquillity. 



Ancient sources on Augustus

Augustus - The Deeds of the Divine Augustus (Res Gestae Divi Augusti)
Nicolaus of Damascus - Life of Augustus
Horace - Augustan Encomiums
Cassius Dio - Roman History Books 45-56
Josephus - Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, Ch. 2
Suetonius - Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Life of Augustus
Tacitus - Annals
 


Portraiture references

Museo Capitolino inventory 495
H. Stuart Jones, The Sculptures of the Museo Capitolino (1912) 187 Cat. no. 2a.
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom I (Mainz 1985) 8 Cat. no. 8 Pl. 9. 10.
G. Hafner, Späthellenistische Bildnisplastik (Berlin 1954) 89 ff. Cat. no. 7;
D. Hertel, Untersuchungen zu Stil und Chronologie des Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts von Augustus bis Claudius (Bonn 1982) 27. 111. 204 Cat. no. 12.
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 27 ff. 129 ff. Cat. no. 45 Pl. 38. 225, 2. 226, 1.

Forbes Augustus, Boston MFA inv. 06.1873
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 124 Cat. no. 34.
M. B. Comstock – C. C. Vermeule, Sculpture in Stone. The Greek, Etruscan and Roman Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston 1976) 207 Cat. no. 327
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3.

Boston MFA Inv. 99.344
G. H. Chase - C. C. Vermeule, Greek, Etruscan and Roman Art. The Classical Collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Boston 1963) 219
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 146 Cat. no. 80 Pl. 119, 3. 120. 149, 9
K. Fittschen, Die Bildnisse des Augustus, in: G. Binder (Hrsg.), Saeculum Augustum III (Darmstadt 1991) 151

Museo Capitolino 413
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 118 f. Cat. no. 23 Pl. 14. 28, 1
R. Brilliant, ActaAArtHist 4, 1969, 17 Pl. 7 b
H. Drerup, Augustusköpfe in Spanien, MM 12, 1971, 138-146, Taf.32-41. 138 ff. Pl. 34 a
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom
H. Kenzler [Red.][u.a.], 2000 Jahre Varusschlacht. Imperium (Stuttgart 2009) 231 Cat. no. 1.21
V. Poulsen, RA 1968, 272 Ill. 2 Cat. no. II
P. Zanker, Studien zu den Augustus-Porträts I. Der Actium-Typus, AbhGöttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 3 Nr. 85 (Göttingen 1973) 15 f. Cat. no. 3 Pl. 6 b - 8

Chiusi Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Inv. 3182
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 148 Cat. no. 86 Pl. 73. 148, 4
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 4 Note 10
H. R. Goette, Studien zu römischen Togadarstellungen, Beiträge zur Erschließung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 10 (Mainz 1990) 23

The Getty (Nilsson) Augustus
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 145 f. Cat. no. 79 Pl. 60. 68, 2
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 5
J. Frel – S. Knudsen Morgan, Roman Portraits in the J. Paul Getty Museum, Ausstellungskat. Tulsa (1981) 28 f. Cat. no. 15
H. Jucker, Iulisch-claudische Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts als \"Palimpseste\", JdI 96, 1981, 247 Ill. 12–14 Cat. no. 4
P. Zanker, Studien zu den Augustus-Porträts I. Der Actium-Typus, AbhGöttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 3 Nr. 85 (Göttingen 1973) 31

Museo Capitolino inv. 2394
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 27 ff. 129 ff. Cat. no. 45 Pl. 38. 225, 2. 226, 1
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 8 Cat. no. 8 Pl. 9. 10
G. Hafner, Späthellenistische Bildnisplastik (Berlin 1954) 89 ff. Cat. no. 7
D. Hertel, Untersuchungen zu Stil und Chronologie des Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts von Augustus bis Claudius (Bonn 1982) 27. 111. 204 Cat. no. 12
Eric R Varner. Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture, 2004. ISBN-13: 978-9004135772

Louvre inv. MA 2577
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 197 Cat. no. ?223 Pl. 211
J. Charbonneaux, La sculpture grecque et romaine au Musée du Louvre (Paris 1963) 148 Cat. no. 2577
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 10
U. Hausmann, Zur Typologie und Ideologie des Augustusporträts, in: ANRW II 12,2 (1981) 560
K. de Kersauson, Musée du Louvre. Catalogue des portraits romains I (1986) 80 f. Cat. no. 34

Louvre inv. Ma 1278
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 133 f. Cat. no. 54 Pl. 57
J. Charbonneaux, La sculpture grecque et romaine au Musée du Louvre (Paris 1963) 142 f.
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom
K. de Kersauson, Musée du Louvre. Catalogue des portraits romains I (1986) 82 f

Louvre inv. MA 1212
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 170 Cat. no. 151 Pl. 87. 149, 2

Louvre inv. MA 1247
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 171 Cat. no. 153 Pl. 151. 224, 1
D. Hertel, Untersuchungen zu Stil und Chronologie des Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts von Augustus bis Claudius (Bonn 1982) 61. 259

Louvre inv. MA 1280
J. Pollini, From Republic to Empire: Rhetoric, Religion, and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome (University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) p 172-173
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 129 Cat. no. 44 Pl. 1, 4. 36. 37. 51, 1
J. Charbonneaux, La sculpture grecque et romaine au Musée du Louvre (Paris 1963) 148 Cat. no. 1280
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 8 Cat. no. 8
U. Hausmann, Zur Typologie und Ideologie des Augustusporträts, in: ANRW II 12,2 (1981) 551 f. 555 Cat. no. 2 Pl. 10. 11
P. Zanker, Augustus und die Macht der Bilder (München 1987) 166 f. Ill. 128

Ara Pacis relief
J. Pollini, From Republic to Empire: Rhetoric, Religion, and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome (University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) p 224-225

Via Labicana Augustus (Terme 56230)
R. Amedick, Frühkaiserzeitliche Bildhauerstile. Entwurf und Verbreitung kaiserlicher Repräsentationskunst (1987) 12 Ill. 4
S. Aurigemma, Le Terme di Diocleziani e il Museo Nazionale Romano (Rom 1970) 113 Cat. no. 306 Pl. 63. 64
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 176 f. Cat. no. 165 Pl. 80. 148, 8. 214, 1
B. M. Felletti Maj, Museo Nazionale Romano. I Ritratti (Rom 1953) 60 f. Ill. 97 Cat. no. 97
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom
A. Giuliano (Hrsg.), Museo Nazionale Romano. Le Sculture 1, 1 (Rom 1979) 274 ff. Cat. no. 170
H. R. Goette, Studien zu römischen Togadarstellungen, Beiträge zur Erschließung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 10 (Mainz 1990) 23. 31. 115 Cat. no. B a 32 Pl. 6,3
D. Hertel, Untersuchungen zu Stil und Chronologie des Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts von Augustus bis Claudius (Bonn 1982) 43. 226 f. Cat. no. 48
H. G. Niemeyer, Studien zur statuarischen Darstellung der römischen Kaiser, MAR 7 (Tübingen u.a. 1968) 45 f. 82 Cat. no. 4 Pl. 2, 1

Herculaneum bronze statue (Napoli Inv. 5595)
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 114 f. Cat. no. 15 Pl. 27. 216, 1
P. Zanker, Studien zu den Augustus-Porträts I. Der Actium-Typus, AbhGöttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 3 Nr. 85 (Göttingen 1973) 31 f. Cat. no. 19 Pl. 25. 26
C. B. Rose, Dynastic Commemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period (1997) 91 f. Cat. no. 15,2 Pl. 80

Metropolitan Museum of Art 08.258.47
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 167 Cat. no. 141

Metropolitan Museum of Art 07.286.115
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 166 f. Cat. no. 140 Pl. 109

Metropolitan Museum of Art 09.221.7
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 115 f. Cat. no. 17
P. Zanker, Studien zu den Augustus-Porträts I. Der Actium-Typus, AbhGöttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 3 Nr. 85 (Göttingen 1973) 26

Metropolitan Museum of Art 21.88.94
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 15 f. 17 ff. 55. 75. 116 Cat. no. 18 Pl. 23
P. Zanker, Provinzielle Kaiserporträts. Zur Rezeption der Selbstdarstellung des Princeps (München 1983) 35

Prima Porta Augustus (Vatican inv. 2290)
J. Pollini, From Republic to Empire: Rhetoric, Religion, and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome (University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) pp 9, 151, 174, 176-177, 186-190
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 38 ff. 41 ff. 54. 66 ff. 97. 102. 179 ff. Cat. no. 171 Pl. 1, 5. 69. 70. 82, 1. 148, 1. 213
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 4 Note 1. 9. 17
N. Hannestad, Roman Art and Imperial Policy (1986) 50 ff. Ill. 34. 35
U. Hausmann, Zur Typologie und Ideologie des Augustusporträts, in: ANRW II 12,2 (1981) 565 ff. 572 ff. Ill. 35 Pl. 18
D. Hertel, Untersuchungen zu Stil und Chronologie des Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts von Augustus bis Claudius (Bonn 1982) 25 ff. 105 ff. 201 ff. Cat. no. 9
H. Jucker, HefteABern 3, 1977, 16 ff.
B. Schmaltz, Zum Augustus-Bildnis Typus Primaporta, RM 93, 1986, 215. 219. 223 f. 228 ff. Pl. 84, 2. 88, 1. 91, 1. 95, 2
K. Stemmer (Hrsg.), Standorte. Kontext und Funktion antiker Skulptur. Ausstellungskatalog Berlin (Berlin 1995) 445 Cat. no. D 36
P. Zanker, Augustus und die Macht der Bilder (München 1987) 103 ff. 192 ff. Ill. 83. 148 a

Vatican inv. 1639
H. J. Kruse, Römische weibliche Gewandstatuen des 2. Jahrhundert nach Christus (1975) 17 f. 166. 242 f. Nr. A 16 Taf. 6
M. Wegner, Boreas 2, 1979, 130

Vatican inv. 10222
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 182 Cat. no. 175 Pl. 131. 149, 6
D. Kreikenbom, Griechische und römische Kolossalporträts bis zum späten ersten Jahrhundert nach Christus (Berlin 1992) 171

Vatican inv. 9953
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 182
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 5
M. Fuchs - P. Liverani - P. Santoro, Caere 2. Il teatro e il ciclo statuario Giulio-Claudio (1989) 97 ff. Ill. 95–99
D. Kreikenbom, Griechische und römische Kolossalporträts bis zum späten ersten Jahrhundert nach Christus (Berlin 1992) 171 f
Eric R Varner, Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture, 2004. ISBN-13: 978-9004135772

Vatican Cortile della Pigna inv. 5137
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Augustus (Berlin 1993) 119 f
P. Zanker, Augustus und die Macht der Bilder (München 1987) 82 f